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Wednesday, March 12, 2008

8th Math TEKS from TEA

(a) Introduction.
(1) Within a well-balanced mathematics curriculum, the primary focal points at Grade 8 are using
basic principles of algebra to analyze and represent both proportional and non-proportional
linear relationships and using probability to describe data and make predictions.
(2) Throughout mathematics in Grades 6-8, students build a foundation of basic understandings in
number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking;
geometry and spatial reasoning; measurement; and probability and statistics. Students use
concepts, algorithms, and properties of rational numbers to explore mathematical relationships
and to describe increasingly complex situations. Students use algebraic thinking to describe
how a change in one quantity in a relationship results in a change in the other; and they connect
verbal, numeric, graphic, and symbolic representations of relationships. Students use geometric
properties and relationships, as well as spatial reasoning, to model and analyze situations and
solve problems. Students communicate information about geometric figures or situations by
quantifying attributes, generalize procedures from measurement experiences, and use the
procedures to solve problems. Students use appropriate statistics, representations of data,
reasoning, and concepts of probability to draw conclusions, evaluate arguments, and make
recommendations.
The provisions of this subchapter were adopted by the State Board of Education in February 2005 to be implemented beginning
with the 2006-2007 school year.
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(3) Problem solving in meaningful contexts, language and communication, connections within and
outside mathematics, and formal and informal reasoning underlie all content areas in
mathematics. Throughout mathematics in Grades 6-8, students use these processes together with
graphing technology and other mathematical tools such as manipulative materials to develop
conceptual understanding and solve problems as they do mathematics.
(b) Knowledge and skills.

(8.1) Number, operation, and
quantitative reasoning. The student
understands that different forms of
numbers are appropriate for different
situations.
The student is expected to:
(A) compare and order rational numbers
in various forms including integers,
percents, and positive and negative
fractions and decimals;
(B) select and use appropriate forms of
rational numbers to solve real-life
problems including those involving
proportional relationships;
(C) approximate (mentally and with
calculators) the value of irrational
numbers as they arise from problem
situations (such as π, √2); and
(D) express numbers in scientific
notation, including negative
exponents, in appropriate problem
situations.
(8.2) Number, operation, and
quantitative reasoning. The student
selects and uses appropriate
operations to solve problems and
justify solutions.
The student is expected to:
(A) select appropriate operations to solve
problems involving rational numbers
and justify the selections;
(B) use appropriate operations to solve
problems involving rational numbers
in problem situations;
(C) evaluate a solution for
reasonableness; and
(D) use multiplication by a constant
factor (unit rate) to represent
proportional relationships.
(8.3) Patterns, relationships, and
algebraic thinking. The student
identifies proportional or nonproportional
linear relationships in
problem situations and solves
problems.
The student is expected to:
(A) compare and contrast proportional
and non-proportional linear
relationships; and
(B) estimate and find solutions to
application problems involving
percents and other proportional
relationships such as similarity and
rates.

(8.4) Patterns, relationships, and
algebraic thinking. The student
makes connections among various
representations of a numerical
relationship.
The student is expected to generate a
different representation of data given
another representation of data (such as a
table, graph, equation, or verbal
description).
(8.5) Patterns, relationships, and
algebraic thinking. The student uses
graphs, tables, and algebraic
representations to make predictions
and solve problems.
The student is expected to:
(A) predict, find, and justify solutions to
application problems using
appropriate tables, graphs, and
algebraic equations; and
(B) find and evaluate an algebraic
expression to determine any term in
an arithmetic sequence (with a
constant rate of change).
(8.6) Geometry and spatial reasoning.
The student uses transformational
geometry to develop spatial sense.
The student is expected to:
(A) generate similar figures using
dilations including enlargements and
reductions; and
(B) graph dilations, reflections, and
translations on a coordinate plane.
(8.7) Geometry and spatial reasoning.
The student uses geometry to model
and describe the physical world.
The student is expected to:
(A) draw three-dimensional figures from
different perspectives;
(B) use geometric concepts and
properties to solve problems in fields
such as art and architecture;
(C) use pictures or models to demonstrate
the Pythagorean Theorem; and
(D) locate and name points on a
coordinate plane using ordered pairs
of rational numbers.
(8.8) Measurement. The student uses
procedures to determine measures of
three-dimensional figures.
The student is expected to:
(A) find lateral and total surface area of
prisms, pyramids, and cylinders using
concrete models and nets (twodimensional
models);
(B) connect models of prisms, cylinders,
pyramids, spheres, and cones to
formulas for volume of these objects;
and
(C) estimate measurements and use
formulas to solve application
problems involving lateral and total
surface area and volume.

(8.9) Measurement. The student uses
indirect measurement to solve
problems.
The student is expected to:
(A) use the Pythagorean Theorem to
solve real-life problems; and
(B) use proportional relationships in
similar two-dimensional figures or
similar three-dimensional figures to
find missing measurements.
(8.10) Measurement. The student describes
how changes in dimensions affect
linear, area, and volume measures.
The student is expected to:
(A) describe the resulting effects on
perimeter and area when dimensions
of a shape are changed
proportionally; and
(B) describe the resulting effect on
volume when dimensions of a solid
are changed proportionally.
(8.11) Probability and statistics. The
student applies concepts of
theoretical and experimental
probability to make predictions.
The student is expected to:
(A) find the probabilities of dependent
and independent events;
(B) use theoretical probabilities and
experimental results to make
predictions and decisions; and
(C) select and use different models to
simulate an event.
(8.12) Probability and statistics. The
student uses statistical procedures to
describe data.
The student is expected to:
(A) select the appropriate measure of
central tendency or range to describe
a set of data and justify the choice for
a particular situation;
(B) draw conclusions and make
predictions by analyzing trends in
scatterplots; and
(C) select and use an appropriate
representation for presenting and
displaying relationships among
collected data, including line plots,
line graphs, stem and leaf plots, circle
graphs, bar graphs, box and whisker
plots, histograms, and Venn
diagrams, with and without the use of
technology.
(8.13) Probability and statistics. The
student evaluates predictions and
conclusions based on statistical data.
The student is expected to:
(A) evaluate methods of sampling to
determine validity of an inference
made from a set of data; and

(B) recognize misuses of graphical or
numerical information and evaluate
predictions and conclusions based on
data analysis.
(8.14) Underlying processes and
mathematical tools. The student
applies Grade 8 mathematics to solve
problems connected to everyday
experiences, investigations in other
disciplines, and activities in and
outside of school.
The student is expected to:
(A) identify and apply mathematics to
everyday experiences, to activities in
and outside of school, with other
disciplines, and with other
mathematical topics;
(B) use a problem-solving model that
incorporates understanding the
problem, making a plan, carrying out
the plan, and evaluating the solution
for reasonableness;
(C) select or develop an appropriate
problem-solving strategy from a
variety of different types, including
drawing a picture, looking for a
pattern, systematic guessing and
checking, acting it out, making a
table, working a simpler problem, or
working backwards to solve a
problem; and
(D) select tools such as real objects,
manipulatives, paper/pencil, and
technology or techniques such as
mental math, estimation, and number
sense to solve problems.
(8.15) Underlying processes and
mathematical tools. The student
communicates about Grade 8
mathematics through informal and
mathematical language,
representations, and models.
The student is expected to:
(A) communicate mathematical ideas
using language, efficient tools,
appropriate units, and graphical,
numerical, physical, or algebraic
mathematical models; and
(B) evaluate the effectiveness of different
representations to communicate ideas.
(8.16) Underlying processes and
mathematical tools. The student
uses logical reasoning to make
conjectures and verify conclusions.
The student is expected to:
(A) make conjectures from patterns or
sets of examples and nonexamples;
and
(B) validate his/her conclusions using
mathematical properties and
relationships.

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